Wednesday, July 31, 2013

Educational Software, the Right Tool for every Occasion!

It seems only a short time ago that educational software,was a novel idea, and yet now it is a staple both in the classroom and on the home computer. These days educational software for children includes areas of learning from maths to music, from literacy to learning a new language. There are, to be sure, very few subjects that cannot be at least in part learned on a computer. To assist in the important process of becoming literate, a huge variety of kids educational software packages are produced which help the child learn to spell, some help improve their writing skills, some are intended to expand a child's vocabulary, and of course there is an extensive range of beautiful interactive books on the market to help them learn to read.

For kids just starting to read there are some good phonics packages and there are special word processors designed for children too. Many schools now have their own website and children can publish their work on the web which is a gre at way to inspire them to get writing. Maths seems the most obvious subject for learning on the computer, and educational software for young children is available to help with counting, other packages concentrate on helping them learn the characteristics of and important words associated with 2D and 3D shapes such as squares, triangles and cuboids, some expose children to the vocabulary of maths, words like 'bigger',' smaller', 'up', 'down', 'many' and 'few'.

As children grow older, educational software packages are made to help with learning their times tables, which is perhaps an improvement on simply reciting 'six sixes are thirty-six' and so on, by rote! Software exists to help with mental arithmetic, learning about and using spreadsheets, money, time and 2D and 3D shape geometry. Children enjoy using computers and educational software can give them an entertaining way to learn, with the advantage that a child can repeat something as many times as they want to, computers don't get bored!

A well thought out education package adds variety and freshness to the experience of practising skills, reinforcing things taught by the teacher or learned from books. Also parents like to be able to help their children make progress, and acquiring suitable educational software for their kids to play with on the home computer is one way they can help their child get ahead. Kids educational software can help improve learning in a huge number of areas; there are packages covering almost every subject known to man. For example, Art. Young children are used to drawing with crayons, felt tip pens, paint and paper, and drawing and painting programs are a completely different and exciting way to create images. Children love cartoons, and now there is a way to create their own animations using special software, something to impress their Mums and Dads and friends!

There is a totally amazing number of software packages designed to assist learning. Some software gives kids the chance to become young composers, and there is an educational software which helps improve a child's 'ear' for music. There is at least one cookery package, and that's without giving a thought to all the packages covering history, science and geography.

You can even get kids educational software which helps them learn about the Moon, an excellent software is SpexWorlds!Lunar a Moon base game from Aspex Software. This is a fasc inating program and gets kids involved in building an on-screen Lunar base, with modular pods, space vehicles, space men and even an alien being! The colour of the lighting can be changed from white to red to purple and by adjusting the lighting, kids change the location of the base to Triton or Io or the fantasy world of Krypton. They will also learn of the original 1969 Moon landing, as the software is provided with a Moonlander and they can take an on-screen Moon walk! SpexWorlds!Lunar Moon base game is for kids aged 6 plus and is available FREE for a limited time. All you have to do is visit Aspex educational software,download it and there you are, on the Moon!

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Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Different Categories of Water

Utah water damage cleanup can be needed for many different reasons. There are different categories of the types of flooding that can happen and they have different severities. The different categories include clean water or category 1, gray water or category 2, and black water or category 3. You should consider the category of water when before you clean up the mess yourself.

Category 1 water is considered to be clean. It usually comes from the pipes in your home and it cannot cause harm to you by making you sick or anything else. Clean water can happen when pipes in the home leak or you forget about a running faucet in your home. This water is potable. Utah water damage cleanup services are not needed when you have a category 1 flood in your home because the water is not dangerous. You can clean the flooding yourself unless you dont have the proper equipment.

Category 2 water is called gray water. This type of water is not consumable and can make someone sick if they consume it. This type of water is considered gray because it may be chemically treated. Flooding with category 2 water often occurs due to an aquarium breaking in the home or a waterbed busting open. It is smartest to have Utah water damage cleanup services to clean this type of flooding in your home for you.

Category 3 water is called black water and is considered very dangerous. You should have a Utah water damage cleanup service clean up this type of flooding if it happens to you. This type of flooding may have feces in it from a sewage or toilet backup or it may be water from the river rising to dangerous levels. Either way, a professional should clean this type of flooding because it could lead to death or severe illness if it is consumed.

When you need Utah water damage cleanup services then you should consider the category type of the water that has flooded your home. This will be helpful to the service. In addition, you should always remember that you should not try to clean up category 2 or 3 flood damage on your own.

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Monday, July 29, 2013

Types of Home Property Damage

There are many types of damage that can happen to your home. From water damage to a crime scene cleanup it can take a lot of time and money to get your home back to the way it once was. Proper maintenance and care can help to relieve some of the problems that can arise in a home but some can happen with just a blink of your eye.

One of the most common types of damage that can happen to a home is water damage. It can happen very easy and can cost up to thousands of dollars to get fixed. If you are a handy man you can take on the challenge of cleanup yourself, but you may want to look into a water restoration company first just see what you may need to do and if any special tools are needed. Water damage cleanup and repair can take a while. You may have mold and mildew that is going to be need to attention before starting the big repairs as it can spread and cause further damage. Some problems can arise and be of no fault to the homeowner such as a flood. It can c ost a pretty penny to fix and a lot insurances do not cover this type of damage.

Sewage backup happens to many homeowners and in the end can cost a lot of money to get fixed. You may end up having to call a sewage clean up company or a plumber to get the sewage problems fixed. You should take the time for proper sewage maintenance to try to prevent any damage that can come along with a sewer.

Another horrible type of damage is from a fire. Many people are left homeless because of fires and so many could have been prevented by simple care and maintenance. There are many more types of damage that can happen in a home. Proper care and maintenance should be on the top of your list. Check with local companies to see what they would recommend when it comes taking the best care for your home. There are some state and cities that require certain companies and officials to handle problems with plumbing. Instead of being able to do the work yourself you may be required to call a profession like some cities request. You must take precautions to try to prevent the damage that can happen to a home.

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Sunday, July 28, 2013

A Guide on How to Sell Used Books Online for Stay-at-Home Moms

Nowadays, more and more stay-at-home moms are in search of home-based business opportunities that can help them earn additional income. There are a lot of reasons why moms prefer home-based employment. For one thing, they want to spend more time with their children, to take care of them and attend to their needs. If you are one of the stay-at-home moms who are looking for an additional source of income, the internet is definitely your best bet - and if you have been collecting books for many years, as most stay-at-home people are able to do, you can sell used books online.

A business opportunity that allows home-based women to sell books online is ideal due to several noble and practical reasons; for one, selling your old books online will not only bring additional income but will also help other people who are in search of rare books. Furthermore, there are a lot of college students across the country who are using these textbooks so selling your old books can be your way of reaching out.

In fact, a lot of people sell old books on the internet to make additional income for themselves. Whatever kind of books you have, you can sell them online to those who are in need. There are a lot of websites where you can sell your old books and all you need to do is research. Aside from earning additional cash, selling old books is also a great way to dispose all of those old books that you will no longer use.
For stay-at-home moms like you who want to get rid of old books and earn money at the same time, here are some useful tips:

1. Before you begin selling your books, it is recommended to go through your entire collection and choose the books that you want to dispose. If your objective is to reduce the number of books in your collection, you should contemplate on which books you want to keep and which ones you want to get rid of. It is best to keep the books that you really treasure and want to read again, those books that have sentimental value to you and those that contain special information that are not easily found anywhere, even online.
2. Sell old books that are in good condition. You should not sell books that are very old, extremely marked up and have torn, stained and missing pages. Make sure to sell books that have clean appearance, no missing or torn pages, minimal or no markings, and with covers that are in good condition. However, there will a lways be exceptions - books that are collector's editions, rare, or first editions.
3. After organizing your used books to be sold, note down their ISBN numbers, which can be seen on the back cover or inside the book (on the first page). It is best to create a text document of all your books' ISBN numbers so that it will be a lot easier for you when checking prices at various book buying websites.
4. Once you have a record of your books to sell, it is now time to go online and choose the website where you can sell your old books. You have two options - go for websites that will let you sell to a buyer directly - just list your book, wait for someone to purchase it, and then deliver it to the buyer. Another way is to sell a large number of books to a single buyer. Although the price for each book is a bit lower in these websites, you can get a lump sum. Also, you do not need to go to the Post Office several times.

Being a stay-at-home mom should not hinde r you from earning additional income for your family. This is especially true for those moms who have accumulated a lot of books overtime. With thorough research, you can find a good website and sell used books online easily.

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Saturday, July 27, 2013

For Total Home Security, Upgrade Your System To Include Important Safety Features

Home security systems can provide around the clock protection for your home in the event of a home invasion or burglary. The most robust home security systems will be flexible and expandable and can include protection from a variety of safety issues in the home including flood, fire, smoke, carbon monoxide, and pipe freezes. Upgrading your system to cover all contingencies adds value to your home security system and protects you and your family from every possible emergency that can arise in your home.

In addition to the sensors and motion detectors that can be monitored by the live monitoring station, there are other sensors and detectors that can be added on to the system. A fire is a major threat to a household and detecting one early can prevent extensive damage and loss of life. Adding smoke and heat detectors to your home security system can protect your home in the unlikely event of a fire, and the monitor can spring into action and call the fire departme nt immediately as soon as the smoke and heat sensors detect a fire. This gives you and your family time to evacuate the house and wait for the fire department to come to extinguish the fire quickly.
Some areas in a home are prone to flooding, such as basements that may lie beneath the water table. If left unchecked, flooding can cause extensive damage to the home and pose a risk to the inhabitants. Flooding sensors can detect if water levels rise in a flood prone area of the house and the homeowner can be alerted to it so the source of the flooding can be detected and preventive measures taken to prevent extensive damage from occurring that may result in expensive repair work.

Carbon monoxide is a dangerous, lethal gas that is odorless and undetectable by the human nose. It is responsible for the deaths of thousands of homeowners who often die in their sleep because carbon monoxide levels in their home have reached lethal levels. Carbon monoxide detectors can help prevent a tragedy from happening. They can detect when carbon monoxide levels reach a dangerous level in the home and alert homeowners to get out of the home until the source of the carbon mono xide can be identified and appropriate measures are taken to insure it is safe to go back inside the home.

Pipe freezes can cause extensive damage to a home's plumbing system and water supply. When pipes freeze over, they sometimes burst which causes extensive damage and requires extensive and expensive repair work. Freeze sensors that are strategically placed on pipes can detect when a pipe is in danger of freezing over and you will be alerted to the fact before the pipe freezes so you can take action to prevent any damage.

Adding these home safety components to your home security system is an important upgrade for your system and works in tandem with the monitoring system to insure the complete safety and security for your family. Making the investment and selecting a home security system that can be upgraded to include home safety features like the ones describe is a wise choice for a homeowner that wants to be prepared for every possible contingency .

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Friday, July 26, 2013

A Battery Sump Pump Can Save Your Home Or Business From Costly Repair

If you are frequently out of town and own a home or business with or without a basement, or even if you are in an area with common power outages, a battery sump pump may be the perfect solution to keeping your basement dry no matter what the elements deliver. There are many different models and brands available offering an array of prices, sizes, and even functions. You generally want to purchase that which is most efficient for use within your home and offers a great value in price and performance. If you buy a safeguard for your home, you obviously want to ensure that there will be no issues in keeping your home safe from any type of damage.

Where to Find Your Sump Pump

There are many different battery operated sump pumps offered both online and in-store. You are able to search your local appliance and hardware stores for these pumps, many of which range from just under $100 to as much as a couple thousand, many times for a complete system. These systems generally provide you with all you need to keep your home or business safe from water damage due to a flood. The internet offers the widest selection of these pumps as you are able to search through stores throughout the country and even abroad. You will be able to see the broadest selection in both price and functionality.

Using a Battery Operated Sump Pump

When you purchase your battery sump pump, you will need to use it appropriately to ensure that it completes its functions. You will need to complete your system with items that will allow your pump to properly protect your home or office from flooding:

- T fittings
- Check Valve
- Battery box
- Control Unit Charger
- GFCI-protected outlet

With any battery operated sump pump you buy, you will be provided with an installation manual for easy setup and appropriate use. This will allow you to get your pump installed immediately upon receipt, whether you purchase online or in-store. You want to ensure that you properly follow the instructions as indicated in order to prevent any mistakes that could cause your investment in this type of pump to be a waste.

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Thursday, July 25, 2013

Preparing Your Home For Summer Thunderstorms

As a consequence thousands of homes all over the country are damaged by thunderstorms every year and much of that damage could have been prevented.

The heavy rains that accompany most thunderstorms often cause the most damage. Roofs, basements, even a home's foundations can suffer when the skies suddenly open. Simply making sure that the gutters are free of debris takes just a few minutes every week, but can make all the difference.

Clogged gutters means that the rainwaters are not directed into the places where they will do the least damage, as a gutter system is designed to do, and will instead pool close to the house, possibly leading to basement flooding or worse. If your gutters are old and a little worse for wear take the plunge and have them replaced. This small investment could save you a fortune in the long run.

While flooding during and after a thunderstorm can cause a great deal of damage to the home, the thing that homeowners everywhere hate about summer thunderstorms is the power outages that often accompany them. Keeping a supply of candles and flashlights (with working batteries) on hand at all times is common sense but many people forget to protect their actual electrical appliances while they are out of commission.

All kinds of electrical appliances from TVs to refrigerators can suffer irreparable harm if they are affected by power surges. A series of good surge protectors can provide a lot of protection against it and they are a small investment to make compared to the cost of replacing a fried computer or home entertainment system.

In certain areas high winds are also a frequent element of the average summer thunderstorm. To stop them from damaging your home good storm doors and operable window shutters can be a great help. If you hear that a storm is on its way remove flimsy furniture from outside the home to avoid a reenactment of the storm from the Wizard of Oz and potentially very expensive home repairs.

If thunderstorms are regularly a big problem in the area where you live you may want to consider calling in a professional to help determine how well protected your home is against thunderstorm damage and what improvements might be necessary to make sure it as storm safe as possible.

These improvements might include changing gutter placement, upgrading roofing materials or installing speciality window glass. Although to some it might seem like calling in a pro is an additional unnecessary expense the money saved in home repair bills down the line could actually make it one of the better investments you ever made in your home.

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Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Fundamental Details Regarding Engineered Wood Flooring

Engineered wood actually is made of wood. It consists of 1/16"-1/8" finish timber on the top layer and non-finish plywood under, therefore, it is a real wood.

Laminate is composed of wood chips at the bottom and paper infused with melamine on top. This is not exactly what we call genuine wood. Firm hardwood is a true wood all over, from top up to the base.

Here are some options of engineered flooring species:

- Hickory - this is a rich, hand-scraped specie which gives your home an everlasting feeling of contentment
- Oak - this is the usual red oak which is Discount Wood Flooring and forever looks great
- Bamboo - all bamboo floors are engineered. These floorings are cheap and green.
- Maple - it is a well-designed finish suitable for family, living and dining rooms.

Several homeowners want hardwood floors when they desire to remodel their homes. But, solid hardwood floorings are not easy to instal l, you are required to hire installers for hardwood floors and it will cost you more. So it is advised that you buy engineered wood flooring to save more time and money.
Engineered wood flooring is pre-finished. The covering of the finish layer is pre-finished, which indicates that it is sanded and sealed already. You may walk on it, after the flooring has been installed. By contrast, solid hardwood which unfinished should be sealed and waiting time is needed before using it. Take note, there are available solid hardwood and also pre-finished wood flooring that can be bought.

Discount Wood Flooring are advantageous as compared to laminate because engineered wood can be polished or sanded as soon as scratches develop.

- Limited Sanding - engineered flooring must be sanded only up to the third time, depending on the width or thickness of the top layer, it must exceed three times sanding because it will destroy the finish layer.

- Professional Sanding Recommended - it is suggested to have professionals to do the sanding. It is extremely simple to gouge the engineered flooring which reveals the plywood under.

Engineered wood floors work well in basements, bathrooms and kitchens wherein slight moistures may be present. Yet, it does not cling to truly wet areas like the basements which flood often or in bathrooms of the kids that have a tendency of flooding frequently.

Truly, there is no product of wood flooring which is great intended for extremely wet spaces like tiles, vinyl, concrete or some other synthetic product is best. However, in relation to some flooring products, engineered wood floors are not bad. Discount Wood Flooring are suggested for more conveniences, cheaper cost and durability.

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Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Dharma Initiative


The Dharma Initiative and its origins are first explored in the episode "Orientation" by an orientation film in the Swan Station. Dr. Marvin Candle (Francois Chau), explains that the project began in 1970, created by two doctoral candidates from the University of Michigan, Gerald and Karen DeGroot (Michael Gilday and Courtney Lavigne), and was funded by Alvar Hanso (Ian Patrick Williams) of the Hanso Foundation. They imagined a "large-scale communal research compound", where scientists and free thinkers from around the globe could research meteorology, psychology, parapsychology, zoology, electromagnetism, and a sixth discipline that the film begins to identify as "utopian social-" before being cut off.

The episodes "LaFleur" and "He's Our You" indicate that mathematician Horace Goodspeed was in charge of Dharma Initiative operations on the Island, at least from the very early 1970s through the time of "the Incident." Key decisions that needed to be made on the Island were taken by a committee, which included all department heads, including Head of Research Stuart Radzinsky and security head LaFleur (the name Sawyer was assuming). They, in turn, answer to the Dharma Initiative HQ based at the University of Michigan, as evidenced when Radzinsky threatens to call the University to override a key decision by Goodspeed. In the episode "The Variable", Daniel Faraday confirmed that Dharma Initiative Headquarters, at least through 1977, was located at Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The "Lost Experience", an alternate reality game which took place in 2006, revealed that the objective of the Dharma Initiative was to alter any of the six factors of the Valenzetti Equation, an equation which "predicts the exact number of years and months until humanity extinguishes itself," to allow humans to exist for longer by changing their doomsday. These factors are represented as numbers in the Valenzetti Equation and are also the numbers frequently mentioned in the show: 4, 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42.

In 1977, the Dharma workers based on the Island drilled into an electromagnetic pocket, releasing a catastrophically dangerous amount of electromagnetic energy. This is referred to as "the Incident" and is frequently alluded to in other Dharma Initiative sources. Radzinsky insisted on drilling despite warnings from Dr. Chang about the danger. In the Swan Station orientation film, recorded in 1980, Dr. Marvin Candle insists that the computer at the Swan Station not be used for any other purpose, specifically to communicate with other stations, and indicates it had something to do with the Incident. When the Oceanic 815 survivors travel back in time to 1977, they attempt to negate the release of this energy by detonating the plutonium core of a hydrogen bomb. The fifth season ends just as the bomb goes off, without revealing what it changed, if anything.

The mysterious map on the blast door, revealed by blacklight.

After the Incident, according to notations on the blast door map painted by Stuart Radzinsky in the Swan Station, the Dharma Initiative's facilities on the Island seemed to fall into disrepair. The blast door map has many annotations about destroyed access tunnels, a breakdown in the Cerberus Security System and mentions facilities being abandoned or destroyed via other incidents or accidents, specifically one happening on October 28, 1984, another in 1985, and a final one on December 7, 1987. By the time Danielle Rousseau and her freighter crew shipwrecked on the Island, in 1988, many of the facilities on the Island have been abandoned, including the radio tower. At no point between then and the eventual purge of its members did the Dharma Initiative attempt a search and rescue for Danielle or her crew, despite Danielle broadcasting her own distress signal on a continuous loop from the tower for four years.

When the Dharma Initiative arrived on the Island, they fought with the Island's natives, known to them as the Hostiles and to the survivors of Flight 815 as the "Others". The "Hostiles" had been living on the Island long before the Initiative arrived. The Arrow Station was eventually given a mission to observe and formulate strategies to counter the Hostiles. When Ben Linus (Michael Emerson) arrived on the Island in 1970, there was still an open conflict between the Hostiles and the Dharma Initiative. At some point prior to 1974, a truce of some kind was brokered with the Hostiles. A series of protocols were put into place between the Hostiles and the Initiative. Several episodes mention that there was a "line" and that certain parts of the Island were considered to be the "territory" of each group. This conflict ended in 1992, when Linus joined the Hostiles and helped kill the remaining members using poison gas, an event which became known as "The Purge". The bod ies were buried in a mass grave.

In 2001, after Stuart Radzinsky's alleged suicide in The Swan, Kelvin Inman, a man who found Desmond adrift on the beach, was still working for the Dharma Initiative in the Swan station. Lost producer Carlton Cuse confirms in a podcast that Kelvin was indeed a member of the Dharma Initiative.[citation needed] In the "Lost Experience", an actor portraying fictional Hanso Foundation executive Hugh McIntyre appeared on Jimmy Kimmel Live, where he stated that the Foundation had stopped funding the Dharma Initiative in 1987. However, in season 2, an air drop of supplies arrived for the Swan station. As an airdrop would require a cargo plane, pilots, parachutes, a loadmaster, and the supplies themselves, this would suggest someone is still providing funding for its activities. Furthermore, the Dharma Initiative insignia can be seen on the Secondary Protocol's mission orders that mercenary commander Martin Keamy accesses in the freighter's safe, suggesting that the Dharm a Initiative continues, in some way, to the present day.

At the 2008 San Diego Comic-Con, a new ARG began with a booth recruiting new members to the Initiative. At the Lost panel, Hans van Eeghen, a Dharma executive, revealed that the results from the booth were "abysmal," and a few people had been selected to view a video that had been sent from thirty years in the past. In the video, Pierre Chang said that the work on the Island is valid, and it is essential that the Dharma Initiative is restarted. Following this a website was launched, which allowed users to join the Dharma Initiative.

Research stations

A Bagua

The Dharma Initiative placed nine (known) research stations around the Island, which take the form of hidden, underground facilities or bunkers. After Oceanic Flight 815 crashes on the Island in September 2004, the survivors encounter several of these stations. The first to be discovered is "The Swan" which they refer to informally as "the hatch". Nine additional stations have since been visited over the series, each with its own particular logo associated with it: an octagon, similar to the bagua design, with a differing symbol at the center. The Swan Station's blast door map makes reference to a light manufacturing facility, a meteorological research station, station "CVII", and others that have yet to be shown on the series.

In the episode "He's Our You", during a meeting of Dharma Initiative heads, there were 14 members present, suggesting 14 separate divisions of the Dharma Initiative on the island.

The Swan station's blast door map claims that there was, at one time, an underground tunnel network that connected many of the stations. Notations on the map suggest that the tunnels started falling into disrepair in the early 1980s, soon after the incident occurred.

Station 2: The Arrow

The Arrow station is first seen in "The Other 48 Days". In "Because You Left", a flashback shows Chang doing the initial recording for the orientation film, where he explains that it is a station for monitoring the Hostiles and formulating strategies to combat them. He is interrupted before he can finish. In "The Man Behind the Curtain", flashbacks of the Dharma Initiative in operation on the Island show one of the members, Horace Goodspeed (Doug Hutchison), wearing a jumpsuit bearing the Arrow station logo with "mathematician" written below it. When rediscovered in 2004, the word "quarantine" appears on the inside of the station's door. In "LaFleur", Horace gives the order to notify the Arrow to "prepare the heavy ordnance" when he believes there is an imminent danger from the Hostiles.

When the tail section survivors come across the Arrow Station in "The Other 48 Days", it has apparently been converted into a storage room. Within, they find a radio, a glass eye, and part of the Swan station's orientation film hidden inside a Bible. Producers Carlton Cuse and Damon Lindelof stated on a podcast that each object is significant, and not randomly chosen.

Station 3: The Swan

Dharma food, bearing the Swan logo

The Swan was planned to be a laboratory used by the Dharma Initiative for research on electromagnetism.. In the episode "The Incident", Dharma Initiative member Radzinsky claimed when complete, the Swan Station would allow manipulation of electromagnetism that "would change the world". According to the feature "Access Granted" on the third season Blu-ray, Dharma drilled into the earth and hit an area containing a large electromagnetic buildup, which their drilling released. The Swan was built over this area to act as a cork. Dharma then came up with a scheme to "dam" the leak but with the drawback that the field built up behind the dam and would eventually break it. A failsafe key could be used to permanently "seal" the leak. The specific event happened some time in 1977, as revealed in "The Variable", and necessitated the evacuation of the island.

On the station's orientation film, Doctor Marvin Candle explains that an "incident" occurred early in the station's experiments. An edit to the film, which according to Inman was made by Radzinsky, removed specific details of this incident. The full film implies that unauthorized usage of the station's computer terminal had something to do with the incident. This event required the entire Swan station area to be sealed with a large amount of concrete "like Chernobyl" (according to Sayid and Daniel Faraday) to contain the dangerous energy. This caused a consistent build-up of electromagnetic energy, which resulted in a change of the station's focus: a two-member crew, replaced every 540 days, were instructed to enter a numeric code into a microcomputer terminal every 108 minutes. The station is equipped with a split-flap display timer, which is interfaced to a microcomputer terminal and connected to an alarm system.

The station is stocked with food, a record player with a collection of old LPs, a small library, an armory, a shower, and bunk beds. There is also a brand new washer/dryer and one of the books in the library is "Rainbow Six" by Tom Clancy, published in 1998. It is almost entirely underground, except for an entrance shaft and a concealed door (possibly due to being hidden in the Hostiles territory). The station also has several internal blast doors, with a map in invisible ink on one of them. This map has been worked on by, at a minimum, Kelvin Inman and Radzinsky. Analysis of the map suggests no less than five unique handwriting styles, and thus five different contributors. The map has direct revision dates on it, and as well as the obvious map entry, also seems to serve as some sort of history to happenings on the island, as there are many annotations that seem to suggest the writers were attempting to locate and ascertain the status of many stations on the Islan d. There are sections that are written in Latin. Kelvin Inman is seen writing in the lower right hand part of the map in "Live Together, Die Alone", near a revision dated for 6.26.2002. There are also acrylic based paints and several murals painted in different portions of the hatch by unknown people as well as tick marks on the wall derived from them.

In the episode "Some Like It Hoth", set in 1977, the Swan Station is shown to be under construction in an area designated as the Hostiles' territory, a violation of the truce Dharma had brokered with them, under the primary authority of Radzinsky. In the episode "The Incident", Dharma hits the pocket, releasing the energy and drawing all metallic objects into the hole. The plutonium core of a hydrogen bomb is detonated by the survivors in an attempt to negate the energy. In "Live Together, Die Alone", Desmond Hume (Henry Ian Cusick) shipwrecks on the Island in 2001 and is taken to the Swan station. Here Kelvin Inman explains about entering the numeric code then pushing the button to save the world. In September 2004, Kelvin and Desmond get into a fight, resulting in Kelvin's death. Desmond enters the numbers too late, resulting in an electromagnetic build-up, which causes the crash of Oceanic Flight 815. Two of the survivors, Locke (Terry O'Quinn) and Boone (Ian S omerhalder), discover the Swan accidentally. Locke manages to successfully open it in the first season finale "Exodus". Inside they find Desmond, who flees after they break the computer. The survivors manage to fix the computer, and begin pushing the button every 108 minutes.
After discovering the Pearl orientation film, Locke believes pushing the button is a psychological test, and with Desmond's help decides to find out what will happen if the button is not pushed. Desmond tries to convince Locke that the station is real, with data from the Pearl, but Locke breaks the computer anyway so he can't stop the countdown. This causes all the metal objects in the Swan to fly about, and the ground begins to shake. Realizing the importance of the button Locke accepts he was wrong, and Desmond turns the failsafe key. The sky turns violet temporarily, and the Swan is destroyed. The electromagnetic burst released by the destruction of the Swan Station renders the island momentarily visible to the outside world. The energy signature is detected by a monitoring station under the control of Penelope Widmore, which reported to her that they had "found the island."

The Incident Room

In the video game Lost: Via Domus, the Incident Room is revealed to be on the other side of the concrete wall in the Swan. The room was accessed by a tunnel and a large locked door. The room contains a large reactor and other severely-damaged equipment. The reactor is tilted to one side and discharging electricity as well as coolant fluid. It has the appearance of two large electromagnetic coils suspended over an excavation hole into the Island surrounded by severely damaged concrete. The Incident Room has its own computer much like the Swan's. This section of the Swan appeared on the blast door map as a blocked off section of the station ("Lockdown"), but was never seen in the show itself.

The Incident Room has been mentioned several times in Lost. Desmond mentioned that there was a magnetic reactor behind the concrete wall. When Sayid first visited the Swan he tried to find a way past the concrete wall, but it was just too thick to get through. Sayid told Jack that "The last time I heard of concrete being poured over everything in this way was Chernobyl," ("Everybody Hates Hugo").

The look and design for the "Incident Room" came from never before seen blueprints given to the developers by the Lost crew for the game. Although the game has been stated to be non-canon, the designs are the creators' intended layout for the blocked sections of the Swan station.

Station 4: The Flame

The Flame is the Dharma Initiative's communication station. It uses sonar and satellite technologies to communicate with the outside world and other stations on the Island, and can also be used to order food deliveries. Unlike the other stations, the Flame is not an underground bunker, but rather a wood-frame bungalow with a large satellite dish on the roof. Inside the station is a living area, a kitchen, and a computer room. Below the building is a large basement containing supplies, including a library of Dharma Initiative operations manuals. The facility also boasts several gardens, as well as chickens, cows, and goats roaming the area.

On the day Oceanic Flight 815 crashes on the Island, Mikhail Bakunin (Andrew Divoff) uses the station to access news feeds to gather information about the survivors. At Ben's request he alters one of the feeds to allow Juliet to see her sister and nephew alive and well off the Island. At some point after this, communication off the Island is no longer possible, as the Looking Glass is blocking all signals. In "Enter 77", Kate Austen (Evangeline Lilly), Sayid Jarrah (Naveen Andrews), and Locke discover the station. Locke uses the computer to send a message saying the Hostiles have invaded the station, and by doing so he intentionally destroys it by causing the C4 lining the basement to go off. As shown in "LaFleur", Radzinsky was stationed at the Flame in 1977, where he designed the model for the future Swan Station.

Station 5: The Pearl

The Pearl is where the Dharma Initiative studied psychology. It primarily serves as a monitoring station, to which surveillance feeds from the other stations are sent. Its orientation film asserts that the Swan is a psychological experiment, and that the purpose of those stationed in the Pearl is to monitor the participants in that station. The station consists of a three-by-three bank of television sets, two chairs with writing surfaces, and a computer hooked to a printer. A pneumatic tube is installed in the room, which the orientation film states is used to transport notebooks to another Dharma location. According to the orientation film that features Dr Mark Whickman, two-person teams, working eight-hour shifts over a three-week period, were to watch the video displays and take notes on their observations. Every action, regardless of how subtle, were to be recorded into notebooks by the Pearl's team members.

After Oceanic Flight 815 crashes on the Island, Nikki and Paulo (Kiele Sanchez and Rodrigo Santoro) are the first survivors to encounter the Pearl, while searching for diamonds. Several weeks later, Locke and Mr. Eko (Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje) enter the Pearl and watch the orientation video. Locke believes this means pushing the button in the Swan is a psychological test, and resolves to discover what will happen if it is not pushed. However, Desmond postulates in "Live Together, Die Alone" that the Pearl participants were the true test subjects without knowing it. This is supported when the survivors discover that the pneumatic tube dumps the notebooks into an open field; the contents of the notebooks indicate that they had been dumped there long before the station closed. During season three, some of the survivors visit the Pearl in hope of finding a way to communicate with the Others, but discover that the station is only capable of receiving data, not sending it.

Station 6: The Orchid

Introduced in the three-part finale of the fourth season, "There's No Place Like Home", the Orchid station appears at first to be an abandoned greenhouse. Hidden below the greenhouse is a second level of the station, a furnished laboratory similar to the Swan station. The Orchid features a small chamber adjacent to an exotic matter anomaly, which can be used to warp time and space. An outtake from the orientation film was shown at the 2007 San Diego Comic-Con, where Doctor Edgar Halliwax explains that, contrary to Dharma's statements that the station was for botanical research, the station is used for researching a "Casimir effect" exhibited by the Island. The producers have confirmed that the video is canon, and holds relevance to the show itself.

Hidden behind the chamber is a further level of the Orchid which consists of pillars and stones with unknown hieroglyphs that have been seen in a few other places on the Island, and ends with a room consisting of a giant frozen wheel built horizontally into the wall. As shown in "This Place is Death", the chamber was in place well before the construction of the Orchid. A well was connected to it at one point before the Orchid was built, but the chamber itself predates it. Ben and Locke enter the station and Ben travels to this room, where he turns the wheel. As he pushes it, the gap containing the wheel glows and the Island vanishes. Ben is transported to the Tunisian Desert as a consequence of using it. As a result of turning the wheel, the survivors of Flight 815 and the freighter crew members begin to jump randomly through time. When Locke returns to the wheel in "This Place is Death", it is shown to be bouncing erratically and still glowing, indicating that Be n did not push it far enough (Christian Sheppard comments that it "slipped off its axis."). Locke finishes the job, transporting himself off the Island to the same place Ben ended up. The time jumps also stop, stranding the survivors in 1974. Charles Widmore would later tell Locke that the Tunisian Desert is the "exit point" for anyone who uses the wheel.

In a flashback in "Because You Left", Dr. Chang is called to investigate an incident at the Orchid. A construction worker is shown bleeding from his eyes and mouth, and six drill bits have been melted drilling into the future site of the chamber. Scans of the wall reveal the presence of another chamber with a wheel behind it. Chang refuses to use explosives to clear the wall, since it might release a limitless energy source. He believes that they will be able to control time if the energy can be harnessed properly.

Station?: The Hydra

The Hydra is a zoological research station located on a small island roughly two miles off-shore from the main island. It is described as being about twice the size of Alcatraz Island. The Hydra facility has cages outside the station in the jungle where polar bears used to be kept. An underwater complex was once used as an aquarium, which housed sharks and dolphins. The facility also features living and research quarters. The symbol for this station is the usual Dharma Initiative logo with a hydra in the middle. You can see it on a large tube behind Kate and Sawyer's cages in season 3.

At the start of season three, Jack, Kate, and Sawyer are held captive on the Hydra island by the Others. Kate and Sawyer are forced to build a runway, until they manage to escape. In season two, a shark has the Dharma symbol branded on its tail. Also in season three episode "A Tale of Two Cities", Tom comments that the polar bears that used to be housed in the cage Sawyer was being held in figured out the "food" puzzle in two hours. A leather collar bearing the Dharma Hydra symbol is found near a polar bear skeleton in the Tunisian desert. In the fifth season, Ajira Airways Flight 316 makes a forced but overall safe landing on the Hydra island, landing on the runway built by the Others. In the fifth season episode "Some Like It Hoth", Dr. Chang threatens to send an over-inquisitive Hurley to the Hydra Station to participate in their "ridiculous experiments" if he mentions a body delivered to Dr. Chang by Miles Straume.

Station?: The Staff

The Staff is a medical research station, later designed to house pregnant women who were taken there to give birth and/or die. It consists of a long corridor, at the end of which is an operating room, as well as a nursery and a locker room. Hidden inside one of the lockers is a switch that unlocks a hidden vault that contains medical equipment and nursery furniture. There is also another hidden room, where the Others take women who have become pregnant on the Island to die.

After Claire Littleton (Emilie de Ravin) is kidnapped by the Others in season one, she is taken to the Staff station. Here she has a drug administered to her fetus. A renegade Other, Alex (Tania Raymonde), helps Claire to escape when she learns that they are planning to steal Claire's baby. When it is found by Claire and Kate later on, Kate discovers costumes, a fake beard, and some theatrical glue in the Staff locker room. In season three, Sun-Hwa Kwon (Yunjin Kim) and Juliet Burke (Elizabeth Mitchell) visit the Staff station to perform an ultrasound to discover when Sun's baby was conceived. In season four, Faraday, Charlotte, Jin and Sun visit the station to get some medical supplies for Jack's operation

Station?: The Looking Glass

The Looking Glass is located on the sea-bed at approximately 60 feet (18m) depth, some 600 feet (182m) from the beach. The station is used to jam communications going to and from the Island, as well as generating a beacon to guide the submarine to the Island. When the Dharma Initiative was still active, the Looking Glass was used to resupply the submarine. The station receives power from the cable that Sayid discovered in the episode "Solitary". The station's logo is a rabbit, a reference to the White Rabbit from Alice in Wonderland (the sequel to which is Through the Looking-Glass). Its logo can be seen in the episode "Greatest Hits" when Charlie swims down to it. The Others were under the impression that the station was flooded. Only Ben knew that the station was still in operation and there were people working there.

In the season three finale, "Through The Looking Glass", Charlie Pace discovers that the rescue boat linked to Naomi, the parachute woman, was not sent out by Desmond Hume's ex-girlfriend Penny Widmore. Charlie locks the door to the control room when Mikhail shatters the porthole window, subsequently flooding the room. This prevents Desmond from getting to Charlie, thereby fulfilling Desmond's latest "premonition" (Charlie was meant to drown in the control room after disabling the jamming equipment). He quickly writes "Not Penny's Boat" on his hand and shows Desmond through the glass on the door.

Station?: The Tempest

The Tempest is a chemical weapons development station on the Island, first seen in the episode "The Other Woman". It is used to control the release of poisonous gases over the Island. Every day, before his death, Goodwin would travel to The Tempest to press a button to prevent deadly gases from escaping. In "The Other Woman", it was revealed that part of Daniel Faraday's and Charlotte Staples Lewis' primary missions were to disable the gases at the station. They said they needed to press the button to save everyone, although they may have wanted to disable the station's gases to prevent Benjamin Linus from using the Tempest as a weapon of last resort against the Island's enemies.

Station?: The Lamp Post

The Lamp Post is the only known off-island Dharma station. It is located in Los Angeles under a church, built on top of a pocket of electromagnetic energy similar to that on the island. This station was used by the Dharma initiative to find the island. As the island is constantly moving, the researchers developed an equation to predict where the island would be in the future, thereby providing a window of opportunity to reach it. A large pendulum (resembling a Foucault Pendulum) hangs from the ceiling making chalk marks on a map on the floor beneath. Many computers surround the pendulum, along with a panel on the wall that marks latitude and longitude. The inside of the station first appears in the second episode of season five, "The Lie", though no explanation of its purpose (or that it is, in fact, a Dharma station) is revealed until the following episode, "316". Eloise Hawking is currently in charge of the station, and uses it to help the Oceanic 6 return to th e island with the assistance of Ben Linus.

The station is called the Lamp Post as a tribute to the Chronicles of Narnia series, in which a lamp post signifies the comings and goings between two worlds. The station's logo includes the traditional Dharma octagon-shape with a picture of what appears to be a lamp post emitting light to either side. This picture can also refer to the pendulum within the station, due to the pointed tip in the picture.

Mysteries of the Universe

Starting on July 23, 2009, ABC's official Lost website started posting a 5 part documentary from lost footage from a short-lived 1980s television series "Mysteries of the Universe". In actuality, the brand and its episodes have been created by ABC and the Lost team in 2009 as a promotion for the final season of the show. The fact that a documentary series with a similar name actually did exist in the 1980s, the information provided in the documentary appears credible at first glance - although the presentation contains a healthy portion of humor. The videos contain new revelations about the DHARMA Initiative and the conspiracies that surround it.

Appearances in Lost


First seen in

First visit (onscreen)

Last seen in

Name given in

Station 2: The Arrow

"Everybody Hates Hugo" (2.04)

"The Other 48 Days" (2.07)

"The Other 48 Days" (2.07)

"Lockdown" (2.17)

Station 3: The Swan

"All the Best Cowboys Have Daddy Issues" (1.11)

"Man of Science, Man of Faith" (2.01)

"The Incident" (5.16 & 5.17)

"Orientation" (2.03)

Station 4: The Flame

"The Cost of Living" (3.05)

"Enter 77" (3.11)

"Namaste" (5.09)

"Lockdown" (2.17)

Station 5: The Pearl

"?" (2.21)

"?" (2.21)

"Expos" (3.14)

"?" (2.21)

Station 6: The Orchid

Comic Con orientation film and "There's No Place Like Home" (4.14)

"There's No Place Like Home" (4.14)

"The Variable" (5.14)

Comic Con orientation film

Station?: The Lamp Post

"The Lie" (5.02)

"316" (5.06)

"316" (5.06)

"316" (5.06)

Station?: The Staff

"Maternity Leave" (2.15)

"Maternity Leave" (2.15)

"Something Nice Back Home" (4.10)

"Lockdown" (2.17)

Station?: The Hydra

"A Tale of Two Cities" (3.01)

"A Tale of Two Cities" (3.01)

"Dead Is Dead" (5.12)

"A Tale of Two Cities" (3.01)

Station?: The Looking Glass

"Greatest Hits" (3.21)

"Greatest Hits" (3.21)

"Through the Looking Glass" (3.22)

"Greatest Hits" (3.21)

Station?: The Tempest

"The Other Woman" (4.06)

"The Other Woman" (4.06)

"The Other Woman" (4.06)

"The Other Woman" (4.06)

In popular culture

A Dharma-related Easter Egg in Half-Life 2: Episode 2.

A Dharma logo in Cloverfield.

In Half-Life 2: Episode Two, players can find an easter egg in the sixth chapter, "Our Mutual Fiend". In Uriah's lab, there is an inaccessible room containing a computer terminal with the numbers shown on the screen and a Dharma-style octagon with a pine tree symbol for the White Forest base on the wall. The room was inserted at the request of Gabe Newell, who promised to insert a reference to Lost in response to Half-Life references in Lost's first season episode "The Greater Good".

In a scene of the U.S. version of The Office, in the episode "Initiation", Dwight Shrute asks Ryan Howard, "What is the Dharma initiative?" This can be seen on the season 3 DVD. He also asks this question to the character Andy in a deleted scene in the third season finale where Andy replies that the DI is the source of all good on the earth. Dwight then corrects him by saying "Wrong. It is an organization created by aliens."

In the 2008 movie Cloverfield, which was produced by J.J. Abrams and the team that made Lost, a slight variation on the Dharma Initiative logo can briefly be seen in the opening of the movie. It is during the introduction of the film which states where the "video" about to be shown came from. It is only visible for a few frames on the lower right side of screen. It looks almost identical to the Pearl station logo.

In the Sholazar Basin area of Northrend in the Wrath of the Lich King expansion for World of Warcraft, there is a hatch in the middle of an island (coordinates 38/37) in a lake. If the player highlights the window of the hatch, the numbers "5 9 16 17 24 43" appear, each number being one higher than the Lost numbers.

In Call of Duty: World at War, in the Nazi Zombies level Verruckt, in the power room when the switch is pulled you can hear a voice saying the numbers.

In Fallout 3, the Numbers are the combination to a hatch-like safe hidden in the floor in Billy Creel's house. You cannot open it by just knowing the numbers, your character must learn them from the child living with him.


^ As revealed during the Lost Experience.


^ a b c d e "Orientation". Jack Bender, Writ. Javier Grillo-Marxuach & Craig Wright. Lost. ABC. 2005-10-05. No. 3, season 2.

^ Rose, Cecil (November 7, 2006). "The Lost Experience Explained". Film Fodder.

^ a b c d "The Man Behind the Curtain". Bobby Roth, Writ. Elizabeth Sarnoff & Drew Goddard. Lost. ABC. 2007-05-09. No. 20, season 3.

^ Lost podcast for March 20th, 2007..

^ "Cabin Fever". Paul Edwards, Writ. Elizabeth Sarnoff & Kyle Pennington. Lost. ABC. 2008-05-08. No. 11, season 4.

^ a b c "Enter 77". Stephen Williams, Writ. Carlton Cuse & Damon Lindelof. Lost. ABC. 2007-03-07. No. 11, season 3.

^ a b c d "Live Together, Die Alone". Jack Bender, Writ. Damon Lindelof & Carlton Cuse. Lost. ABC. 2006-05-24. No. 23, season 2.

^ Lowry, Tom (2006-07-24). "Network Finds Marketing Paradise with Lost". BusinessWeek.

^ Laurence, Cameron (2006-05-26). "If Only "Lost" Were Real -- Wait, Is It?". HowStuffWorks.

^ "Comic-Con: Live-Blogging the 'Lost' Panel". Washington Post. 2008-07-26.

^ Rice, Lynette (2008-07-26). "Comic-Con: 'Lost' producers give out prizes...and some scoop". Entertainment Weekly.

^ a b "The Other 48 Days". Eric Laneuville, Writ. Damon Lindelof & Carlton Cuse. Lost. ABC. 2005-11-16. No. 7, season 2.

^ a b Lost Official Podcast November 21, 2005.

^ "Access Granted". Lost: The Complete Third Season - The Unexplored Experience, Buena Vista Home Entertainment. December 11, 2007. Featurette, disc 7.

^ "Lockdown". Stephen Williams, Writ. Damon Lindelof & Carlton Cuse. Lost. ABC. 2006-03-29. No. 17, season 2.

^ "All The Best Cowboys Have Daddy Issues". Stephen Williams, Writ. Javier Grillo-Marxuach. Lost. ABC. 2004-12-08. No. 11, season 1.

^ "Exodus: Part 2". Jack Bender, Writ. Damon Lindelof & Carlton Cuse. Lost. ABC. 2005-05-25. No. 24, season 1.

^ "Man of Science, Man of Faith". Jack Bender, Writ. Damon Lindelof. Lost. ABC. 2005-09-21. No. 1, season 2.

^ a b c "?". Deran Sarafian, Writ. Damon Lindelof & Carlton Cuse. Lost. ABC. 2006-05-10. No. 21, season 2.

^ "One Of Us". Jack Bender, Writ. Carlton Cuse & Drew Goddard. Lost. ABC. 2007-04-11. No. 16, season 3.

^ "Greatest Hits". Stephen Williams, Writ. Edward Kitsis & Adam Horowitz. Lost. ABC. 2007-05-16. No. 21, season 3.

^ "Expos". Stephen Williams, Writ. Edward Kitsis & Adam Horowitz. Lost. ABC. 2007-03-28. No. 14, season 3.

^ "The Cost of Living". Jack Bender, Writ. Alison Schapker & Monica Owusu-Breen. Lost. ABC. 2006-11-01. No. 5, season 3.

^ West, Steve (July 27, 2007). "ComicCon: Lost Orientation Video For The Orchid Station". Blend Television.

^ Lachonis, John (October 30, 2007). "Lost's Fourth Season Closes In, and The Orchid Blossoms". BuddyTV.

^ "There's No Place Like Home: Parts 2 and 3". Jack Bender & Stephen Williams, Writ. Damon Lindelof & Carlton Cuse. Lost. ABC. 2008-05-29. No. 13 & 14, season 4.

^ "The Shape of Things to Come". Jack Bender, Writ. Brian K. Vaughan& Drew Goddard. Lost. ABC. 2008-04-24. No. 9, season 4.

^ "A Tale of Two Cities". Jack Bender, Writ. J. J. Abrams & Damon Lindelof. Lost. ABC. 2006-10-04. No. 1, season 3.

^ "The Glass Ballerina". Paul Edwards, Writ. Drew Goddard & Jeff Pinkner. Lost. ABC. 2006-10-11. No. 2, season 3.

^ "Confirmed Dead". Stephen Williams, Writ. Drew Goddard & Brian K. Vaughan. Lost. ABC. 2008-02-07. No. 2, season 4.

^ a b c d "D.O.C.". Fred Toye, Writ. Edward Kitsis & Adam Horowitz. Lost. ABC. 2007-04-25. No. 18, season 3.

^ a b "Maternity Leave". Jack Bender, Writ. Dawn Lambertsen Kelly & Matt Ragghianti. Lost. ABC. 2006-03-01. No. 15, season 2.


^ "The Greater Good". TVIV. Retrieved 2009-06-20.




Cast Episode list Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5 Season 6 Soundtracks

Main characters

Ana Lucia Ben Boone Charlie Charlotte Claire Daniel Desmond Frank Hurley Ilana Jack Jin Juliet Kate Libby Locke Michael Miles Mr. Eko Nikki & Paulo Richard Sawyer Sayid Shannon Sun Walt

Supporting characters

Alex Christian Ethan Keamy Rose & Bernard Penny Rousseau Tom Widmore


Dharma Initiative Hanso Foundation Oceanic Airlines The Others


Awards Find 815 Lost Experience Lost: Missing Pieces Lostpedia Lost: Via Domus Mythology

Categories: Fictional academic institutions | Fictional scientists | Fictional soldiers | Fictional laboratories | Lost (TV series)Hidden categories: Articles that need to differentiate between fact and fiction from October 2009 | All articles that need to differentiate between fact and fiction | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008

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Monday, July 22, 2013

The Basics of Engineered Wood Flooring

Engineered Wood Flooring is somewhat different from Natural Wood Flooring. Natural Wood Flooring is made from natural wood obtained from different types of trees like Bamboo, Beech, Cherry, Maple, Oak, etc. Engineered Wood Flooring, on the other hand, is part Natural Wood and part Plywood. It is made by using 1/16" to 1/8" of finish wood on top and unfinished plywood underneath. So what is inside does not matter, the top surface is100 percent genuine wood. Engineered Wood Flooring is the latest trend in the market and is an innovative and interesting substitute of Natural wood Flooring. Natural Wood Flooring is prone to warping, discoloring and cracking when exposed to extreme temperatures, whereas Engineered Wood Flooring is durable and easier to maintain.

The construction process of Engineered Wood Flooring is different from that of Natural Wood Flooring. In Engineered Wood Flooring, a thin layer of hard wood is laid on top of a thick layer of plywood. The t op layer is suited to be walked upon as soon as it is laid down as it has already been polished. The top layer is real wood hence it needs to be polished regularly so that it does not lose its luster. There are different species of Engineered Wood Flooring. A few of them would be:

Hickory Wood- Hand scraped wood gives your home a timeless feeling. Maple Wood- Maple Wood gives an elegant finish to whichever room it is applied in. It is most suitable in living rooms and dining rooms. Bamboo Wood- Almost all Bamboo Wood Flooring is engineered but it "Green" and cheap. Oak Wood- Oak Wood is reddish in color and is inexpensive and the most popular type of wood used for flooring.
Engineered Wood Flooring can be sanded if it develops scratches or dings. There are various disadvantages of Engineered Wood Flooring as well. First and foremost, if the sanding of this floor is not done by a professional, then the life of this floor can get drastically reduced. The sanding of Engineered Wood Flooring should always be carried out by an expert. Secondly, Engineered Wood flooring cannot be sanded more than 2-3 times. If it is sanded excessively, it tends to lose its luster and sturdiness.

Engineered Wood Flooring is moisture resistant and can be suitably applied in areas with maximum moisture like kitchens, basements, bathrooms, etc. Though it can retain moisture well, it is advisable not to use Engineered Wood Flooring in basements that tend to flood frequently or in children's bathrooms as they are also prone to flooding.

Engineered Wood Flooring has many advantages over Natural Wood Flooring and Synthetic Wood Flooring. If you want sturdy durable flooring that offers the same feel and luster as Natural Wood Flooring and which is inexpensive and durable, then Engineered Wood Flooring is the one to choose.

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Sunday, July 21, 2013

The Influence of Television on Society

Television has been playing a significant role in society, particularly in the twentieth and twenty first centuries. As the role of the television has grown into something massive that is used to connect people to their surroundings, the importance of having a current television in your household has definitely become known. Televisions have evolved immensely over the years. They began as simple devices with few programs and a mediocre picture that were good for amusing children and bringing the family together, but now televisions are used for so much more.

Televisions are one of the most common ways of spreading information from one source to another. Televisions keep society in touch with breaking news and events that are happening on all ends of the world. Since the 1930s, televisions have been pivotal sources of entertainment throughout the world. It is rare in this day and age to come across a home that does not contain at least one television. Children and adults alike like to immerse themselves in the world of television. There are now television providers out there who offer a plethora of channels, ranging from educational television, to adult television, to news channels, to sports channels, to music channels. Broadcast television is the most common way to spread news throughout society and has stolen the spotlight away from radio, in a sense. No matter who you are or what your interests are, there are television programs that will thoroughly engage you.

If your household has not integrated televisions into the environment, or if you are simply making use of older televisions, it is time to step up your game and immerse yourself in a world of televisions that will allow you to get the most of the experience. Televisions are readily available today. Whether you want to shop online and have your new television delivered, or you want to go to a home improvement store, select your television in person and then take it home with you that very day, there are numerous options for you to utilize. Televisions are becoming more cost effective, and you can now stretch your money further by investing in flat screen televisions, LCD televisions, and plasma televisions that are top notch products on the market. These televisions provide you with an immaculate picture that is more clear than ever, and they are useful in connecting you to your surroundings. Televisions are some of the most beneficial investments you can make for the atmos phere of your home. If you take contemporary living seriously, you want to make sure the televisions in your home are up to date and can give you, your family, and your friends the best entertainment experience out there. Overall, televisions will make all the difference in your home or business, so now is the prime time to get your foot in the door and start exploring all of the televisions available on the market that will suit your entertainment wants and needs while simultaneously fitting your budget.

Plasma Televisions and LCD TVs can bring a whole new sense of modernity to your home. With prices reaching more affordable levels than ever, now is the prime time for you to shop.

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Saturday, July 20, 2013

My home theater computer has "no signal" on the television

When I chose to build my first home theater computer (HTPC) and test it using a television with high definition, I was shocked that I had problems with "no signal." For those of you who wish to use a computer with your television, let me share with you some of what I knew previously and what I learned in the process of troubleshooting my first problem with a home theater computer.

There are three probable faults for no signal. The computer, the television, the video cable, or a combination of these three things.

Now if you do see a logo when you first turn on the computer but then video disappears, might we suggest you try adjusting the Windows video settings. Try entering the low-resolution boot option by pressing F8 just as Windows would start loading. Once in Windows, you can then try adjusting the video resolution until the problem is resolved. If the low-resolution boot mode does not work, then you probably have a bad video driver. This is of course based on there being some form of logo pictured from the computer when you first turn it on such as the brand of the computer or the motherboard.

When there is no signal, and before testing anything else, make sure the power is turned on. It seems silly but there are times when you may do a bunch of troubleshooting and then go to unplug the computer to move it for repairs to only realize that the computer was unplugged the whole time. This is the easiest problem to fix. Plug in and turn on. Check both the computer and the television.

If you suspect the outlet is without power, there is an easy way to check. Grab a lamp, radio, or any other electronic device you know works. Plug that into the socket in question. If the device works elsewhere but not at this outlet, you may not have power here. Some outlets are wired on a light switch, and it may be limited to just one plug so try all the sockets in question.

Does your computer shut off the power to the "display" after inactivity or go into Standby or a sleep mode. If so, try moving the mouse, pressing a key on the keyboard, or pressing the power button. If using a wireless keyboard or mouse, make sure they are turned on before attempting to wake the computer. Some computers wake when the power button is pressed. This can vary by manufacturer and customized settings.

The video cable

Video cables do fail. If you can, use a spare cable to test. If you have another HDMI or DVI device, chances are that you may have another cable, or you can usually purchase a cable for less than ten dollars. Simply swap out the cable and try again. You may know rather quickly whether this fixes the problem. If the television and computer are both turned on as you swap the cable, the computer may recognize the change and adjust the signal according to the EDID information provided by the television. Give it a few seconds. If after a few seconds the problem persists try restarting the computer. By default, Windows will attempt to identify the display it is connected to during start up. If you swapped the cable and you still have no video even after restarting the computer, then the odds are good that it is not a problem with the cable.

The computer

A computer problem could be anything from bad video drivers to failed video hardware. Here is the first way I identify if the problem is hardware or software: do I see a logo when I first turn on the computer? Most computers display a logo during initial power on while conducting some quick self-tests. If I see no logo when starting up the computer, then I suspect a hardware problem of some sort.

One possibility is that you do not have that video port enabled in the computer. Some video ports are built into the motherboard for integrated or onboard video. If you have an expansion video card as well, the ports on the motherboard are disabled by default in favor of the expansion card video. If your computer has an expansion slot filled with some sort of video card, you may want to check that you are plugging your video cable into an active port. It is an easy mistake to make. Just because your motherboard has the integrated HDMI port does not mean it will be an active port.

If you are using a video card that supports two displays and the other display is working, you may want to check in your display settings to make sure both "monitors" are enabled. This would be most evident if you have picture on the other display while showing picture on this television. It is becoming more common for computers to support two displays simultaneously, and some video cards support more than that. Activating a second display can usually be done directly through the Windows Display Properties or another utility for the display drivers. For example, AMD calls their video software the Catalyst Control Center.

If you still have no signal on the television, then if you have another television or a computer monitor available, trying connecting the computer to one of these instead. Some computer monitors support HDMI input. The purpose is to isolate if the problem is with the computer or the television. If you still get no video using a known good monitor or television, then the problem is with the computer.

If your monitor does not support HDMI, check and see if your computer shares a DVI or display port with the HDMI port you are questioning. The reason for this is because some computers share the HDMI port with a DVI port or display port. This is not a perfect test of the HDMI port. The best choice would be to plug a cable into the HDMI port with another television or monitor for testing purposes. If you cannot create the ideal test, you can get a basic idea whether the HDMI port should work if you connect a monitor to the matching DVI or display port it is paired with. If you still get no video using a known good display, then the problem is with the computer.

If the computer is still under warranty, I would recommend you contact your computer manufacturer/builder for support. If the warranty has expired or was invalidated, there are businesses with the skill to diagnose your computer located in most locations. Check your local listings. For example, in our local telephone book under "computers" there are several pages worth of businesses offering to repair computers, some even offering to come on-site to service your computer.

For those of us conducting repairs the easiest way to identify if it is a hardware versus software issue with the computer is to have another computer and compatible video card available. Do any part swaps with the computer(s) turned off. For example, after pulling the video card out of a computer, I found that the user's computer worked again when I turned it on again using only the integrated video port. I knew then that it was either the video card itself or the drivers in Windows. I was fortunate to have a compatible video card on hand that day. When I used my video card instead, there was picture. This eliminated the software and drivers as possible issues since both the software and drivers worked fine with the compatible video card. Since I had determined the actual problem was their video card, I was able to complete the correct repair and the end user was very satisfied with the work.

The television

Do you have another device that can connect to the same HDMI port as the computer was plugged into? If so, plug the alternate device into the television in the same port used with the computer. If this still produces no video, then there is a problem with at least the HDMI port on the television.

I bought a used television to use with my initial test HTPC. When I started having occasional problems with video, it turned out to be an indication that the HDMI port on the television was failing. It wasn't long before it completely failed. When I did a little research on the television online, I found out why the computer worked fine with my computer monitor but had troubles with the television. Other owners of that make and model television were having the exact same problem. What they found is that if they moved their cable box or gaming platform HDMI cable from port 1 to port 2 on the back of television that all their problems disappeared with both sound and picture. In this example, I was fortunate that the television had a second HDMI port to use and that this resolved the problem without having to replace the TV.

If the port on the television is failing, it could start sending bad information back to the computer. When the computer connects to any display it sends a signal requesting the device identify itself (EDID). If the television gives the computer faulty information, the computer will not identify that the television provided incorrect data. In our test rig, it was that faulty EDID signal, so the computer would end up sending incompatible signals. We could force the correct setting but whenever we changed inputs on the television, we had the issue that switching back to the computer caused a new EDID identification and the computer would return to a setting the television did not support.

Having corrected our issue with a faulty HDMI signal, I have had the opportunity to see more of the wonders of owning our own home theater computer. It has been better than anticipated once we resolved that one problem of "no signal."

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Friday, July 19, 2013

Dallas Auto Insurance: 3 Ways to save on car insurance

Dallas Auto Insurance 3 Ways to save on car insurance in Texas

Saving money on your auto insurance policy isn't as hard as one would think. Especially when getting coverage through such a reputable and experienced insurance company.

According to, the national median average that a person pays for auto insurance is $1,400 per year. There are several ways to save on your auto insurance just by taking a few extra steps.

Whether this is your first time purchasing vehicle insurance, shopping for better rates or looking to update your current policy, here are the 3 most beneficial ways to save on car insurance.

Raise your deductible Combine insurance policies Pay insurance in full up front Raising Insurance Deductible

By raising your deductible, you could significantly reduce your collision and comprehensive coverage cost by up to 40%. If you are in an accident, the out of pocket cost will be higher than before, however if you are a safe and cautious driver, you will save more on your premiums.

Multiple Insurance Policies

By combining your auto insurance policy with your other insurance policies such as home insurance, RV, renters insurance or any other policies you may have, can significantly lower your rates for each policy. By combining your vehicle insurance with other insurances you could be saving around 15% on average of your monthly bills.

Up Front Payments

Most insurance companies would recommend paying your total yearly insurance bill up front, rather than month to month to help save money. Most insurance companies charge a monthly fee to pay at a monthly rate, so if you can afford it, paying your entire car insurance coverage up front can save you a significant amount of excess cash.

Our specially trained and experienced staff will work with you to make sure you are getting the right amount of auto insurance coverage at an affordable rate. We are willing to help you save money in any way possible. By keeping in mind the three most important ways to save money on your car insurance policy, speak with one of our agents today.

Don't drive another day without a strong auto insurance policy on your side. Accidents can happen at any time. A great insurance policy doesn't have to be expensive!

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Thursday, July 18, 2013

Drain Systems

Sewage and drain systems are part of modern history and essential part to understand the process of development of construction of water systems in human history process.
In ancient world, most of the sophisticated Sewage and Drain and water systems, where built in and for the kings and the rich people. It was until, everyone in the society understood that it was a common problem.
One of the most ancient sewage system and drainage are traced back to the Ancient Indus. These systems have amazing similarities to our modern sewage systems. Almost all houses in cities such Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in India and Pakistan had an access to fresh water and drain systems facilities. Waste waters systems were designed to direct to a covered Drain systems which ended in major streets.
Fast growth of cities in the middle and in the last 200 years, created the need to design and implement the same basic Sewer and drain principals, bu t this time, it was for much bigger population, for millions of people in each city!

Type of Drains

Main Line-

Define as the drain system that will carry out the waste water from the building (Residential or Commercial) to the city sewage system. The law in USA, in the vast majority of the counties and cities, requires the Home Owner or the Property Owner (Commercial) to maintain the Mainline and repair it!!

(Note: the home owner is responsible for the sewer line all the way even the connection to the city, which is called the "Saddle" or "The City Tie In". Sewer mains can be from 6 feet deep to 10 feet deep due to freeze line specifications for the area)

Secondary line-
Drain systems that are located inside buildings walls (Housed, condo complexes, and commercial buildings) and will carry waste water into the Street main line.

Residential Drains-
All of your drains in your house is considered secondary lines for example: kitchen, laundry, tub/shower and hand sink drains are all considered secondary dr ains. They all consist from 1 inch pipe that will end up in a 3 inch or 4 inch main line. The toilet secondary line, is the only one in the house that its size on goes from 3 to 4 inches.

We can find only the mainline will exit the house and go to the street. If you have an alley almost all the time the main Drain will exit there to the city drain.
Residential drain problems can be categorized into Kitchen, Bath Tub, Shower, Laundry and Toilet. All these lines are considered secondary and will connect to the main line.

Bathtubs and Shower drain Problems-
No surprise here, hair is the main cause for slow or complete stoppage. Soap, other dirt, shampoo, and hair products create the problem. In most cases if the problem persists and is not treated properly, the pipes will eventually collapse and will cause a major problem.

To unclog the drain, Plumbers will use a 3/8 inch cable to clear the drain. And depending how dirty the drain is, and how hard and solid the build-up in the pipe is, we might need to run a Hydro-Jetter to clear the Drain completely. A snake will push and "Drill" a hole in the clogged drain , while a Hydro-Jetter will break and clear the crystallized solids accumulated on the pipe! Recommendation will be, using Hydro-Jett every 5 years in showers and tub.

Kitchen Drain-
Kitchen Drain clogs are caused by food debris, grease and years of buildup, rice and pasta leftover should not be used in a garbage disposal. A secondary snake machine with 3/8 inch cable will clear the drain.
Hydro-Jetting is almost always recommended to actually clean the drain and will have the drain running up to 10 years depending what goes down the drain. Most Plumbers will warranty if Hydro-Jetting is used.

Laundry Drains-
A typical Clog is due also for hair, line, dirt soap parts that will slow the flow and eventually stops up the drain. A Secondary snake machine with 3/8 inch cable is used to clear the drain, but plumber will give warranty only for a month or two. A Hydro-Jetter is almost recommended to actually c lean the drain and open its original size. In most cases, it is recommended that this secondary lines every 10-15 years to prevent a major drain problem that can end in broken pipes.

Hand Sink-
These clogs are due to the fact, that when many products that are washed down like toothpaste, mouth wash and soap, hand washed dirt etc. When combining all those chemicals over the time the drain just built up and stops the drain. A snake 3/8 inch cable clears the drain. Depending how dirty the drain is, a Hydro-Jetter to actually cleaning the drain.

Floor drain -
These drains get all kind of dirt, dust, leafs and debris (all kinds), and will clog these drains. A secondary snake 3/8 inch cable is used to unclog the drain.

Toilet / Maintenance -
A toilet clogged sometimes is just inside the toilet and can be cleared with a hand Auger Cable. After clearing the toilet, it is important to check the water flow in the basement (if there is one) in order to make sure that the main line is clear too!

Main line-
The main line drain is the heart of the property (Residential, Commercial) sewage system. A stoppage in the main sewer main line can cause immediately a flood in the basement (If existed) or flooding other parts of the house, causing damaged to carpets and other valuable items in the house. Main line should be snaked immediately with 3/8 inch cable. A Skilled plumber can make that determination on where the clog is at. Sewer main stoppage is usually due to roots, baby wipes, partially collapsed pipes, or complete off-set.
A sewer camera should always be run to inspect these drains. In most cases snaking and hydro-jetting the main line will solve the problem unless pipe structure problem is detected.
In case of of-set or broken pipe or root problem, the sewer line must be replaced completely.

For more information, check out: or

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Wednesday, July 17, 2013

The Major Benefits of Walkers and How They Work

For the most part it seems that there are two types of people - those that can use and do use manual wheelchairs or motorized wheelchairs, and those that can use and do use rolling walkers or other types of walkers. I suppose it really depends on how your body works. With rolling walkers, you don't need as much leg strength as one would think, but you do need to have a lot of upper body strength. These rolling walkers are a great new addition to the old walkers where you had to actually inch forward.

These rolling ones will instead "glide" or roll across the floor thanks to coasters or little wheels on the bottom of the walkers. This is definitely about ease and convenience. My grandfather used to use a regular walker and it took him a good 2 minutes for every single step the man took. How pitiful! I always felt so bad for him. Last Christmas though, I decided to surprise him with one of these rolling walkers and now he zooms around the house as if he didn't even hav e a walker at all. It's a major confidence booster for the person as well because now they no longer feel like a bother.

Now he can do stuff on his own, and we don't have to watch him every single second to make sure he's alright. Also, there are rolling walker with seat options as well. These are the same as a rolling walker in that they do roll, but the seat option allows the user to sit down, pretty much whenever the user wants to. I've seen these in action and to be honest it sort of pulls at my heart strings because before with a regular walker the user simply had NO other choice. But with technology and new and innovative ideas coming along every single day, users can now use something like a rolling walker with seat to better accommodate their needs.

I know my grandma for example, can't stand for very long periods because her feet and legs and ankles and everything just becomes painful. So with something like this you no longer have to feel in pain. Also, there are knee walkers as well, these are a great alternative to crutches! Instead of having an uncomfortable "pad" under your armpit which by the way is incredibly uncomfortable and painful, now you have a better way to not only get around, but to also get rehabilitated as well. These knee walkers are very use to use and can be used for an array of people with varying disabilities.

Major benefits include less fatigue do to conserved energy, more stability for the user, increased circulation in the legs which is a major part of recovery and overall comfort and it's MUCH safer than your usual crutches because you have more control over where you move and how you move. Crutches can somewhat be a trick of the mind, your brain wants to move a certain way and crutches simply won't let you do that. But with something like knee walkers you can get around very easily and it can definitely bring a new sense of mobility into your life. For home use you could consider using a com mode chair as well.

These are nifty little chairs with casters or wheels on the bottom of the chair, somewhat compared to a walker. Instead of just walking with these though, you can actually walk to the toilet and hover over the toilet while sitting in the chair - it goes right over the toilet. This is also a nice option for people that have bad knees and simply cannot bend down the way they used to be able to. So when it comes to not only walkers, but all of these products they are bound to promote more usability, functionality and overall comfort.

For the most part it seems that there are two types of people - those that can use and do use manual wheelchairs or motorized wheelchairs, and those that can use and do use rolling walkers or other types of walkers. I suppose it really depends on how your body works. With rolling walkers, you don't need as much leg strength as one would think, but you do need to have a lot of upper body strength. These rolling walker s are a great new addition to the old walkers where you had to actually inch forward.

These rolling ones will instead "glide" or roll across the floor thanks to coasters or little wheels on the bottom of the walkers. This is definitely about ease and convenience. My grandfather used to use a regular walker and it took him a good 2 minutes for every single step the man took. How pitiful! I always felt so bad for him. Last Christmas though, I decided to surprise him with one of these rolling walkers and now he zooms around the house as if he didn't even have a walker at all. It's a major confidence booster for the person as well because now they no longer feel like a bother.

Now he can do stuff on his own, and we don't have to watch him every single second to make sure he's alright. Also, there are rolling walker with seat options as well. These are the same as a rolling walker in that they do roll, but the seat option allows the user to sit down, pretty much whene ver the user wants to. I've seen these in action and to be honest it sort of pulls at my heart strings because before with a regular walker the user simply had NO other choice. But with technology and new and innovative ideas coming along every single day, users can now use something like a rolling walker with seat to better accommodate their needs.

I know my grandma for example, can't stand for very long periods because her feet and legs and ankles and everything just becomes painful. So with something like this you no longer have to feel in pain. Also, there are knee walkers as well, these are a great alternative to crutches! Instead of having an uncomfortable "pad" under your armpit which by the way is incredibly uncomfortable and painful, now you have a better way to not only get around, but to also get rehabilitated as well. These knee walkers are very use to use and can be used for an array of people with varying disabilities.

Major benefits include less fa tigue do to conserved energy, more stability for the user, increased circulation in the legs which is a major part of recovery and overall comfort and it's MUCH safer than your usual crutches because you have more control over where you move and how you move. Crutches can somewhat be a trick of the mind, your brain wants to move a certain way and crutches simply won't let you do that. But with something like knee walkers you can get around very easily and it can definitely bring a new sense of mobility into your life. For home use you could consider using a commode chair as well.

These are nifty little chairs with casters or wheels on the bottom of the chair, somewhat compared to a walker. Instead of just walking with these though, you can actually walk to the toilet and hover over the toilet while sitting in the chair - it goes right over the toilet. This is also a nice option for people that have bad knees and simply cannot bend down the way they used to be able to. So when it comes to not only walkers, but all of these products they are bound to promote more usability, functionality and overall comfort.

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Tuesday, July 16, 2013

5 Key Elements of a Successful Home Based Business

Who wouldn't want to work from home? You can make your own hours, forget ever having to commute, and never have to answer to a boss. Plus, as a home based business owner, you have the potential to earn exponentially more than you ever will by punching a time clock.

Yet, there are so many home based business opportunities available that it's often difficult to choose the one that is a good fit for you and that has the income potential that you need. To help you make your choice, here are five key elements to look for in a home based business.

1. Go with Network Marketing

While it's true that not everyone succeeds at network marketing, the principles behind it are sound. After all, network marketing is essentially using and selling products through word of mouth. This approach allows you to reach out to an ever-growing number of people and reap the financial rewards of building your own downline. Because network marketing cuts out the middleman, your earning potential increases. In the process, you create the potential for residual income while enjoying low overhead and the opportunity to work when and where you want. Furthermore, when you take advantage of Internet-based network marketing, you are not bound by geographic boundaries; your customers and downline can reach global proportions.

2. Choose a Company that Offers Multiple Products

Every day, you use dozens of products. Some home based business opportunities focus on one product, while others focus on many. When you do the math, it's easy to see why it's preferable to choose a company that allows you to become a member and have access to a wide variety of products, as well as to sell those products.

3. Find Cutting Edge Products to Use and Sell

Few people need more candles, kitchenware, or knick-knacks. What they really need and want are information and mobile technology products, such as DSL, VOIP, and broadband. Baby boomers in particular are looking for values in discount shopping, travel, and professional services such as legal services and health services. Companies and entrepreneurs are always on the lookout for cutting edge business software, conference calling, SEO services, marketing products, and video production services.

4. Look for a Solid Compensation Plan

Compensation plans vary from company to company, so be sure to find one that gives you the greatest earning potential. A single paid matrix is an excellent approach, as is a 3 x 9 monthly matrix commission.

5. Gain Access to Business Building Tools

One of the premises of network marketing is that you don't need to reinvent the wheel; the infrastructure for a successful business model already exists. When reviewing home based business opportunities, especially those that are Internet based, find one that allows you to grow your business through duplication, so that you can immediately get up and running. The company you work with should also have a support system that includes mechanisms to capture leads, create ads, and develop solid marketing strategies. Moreover, there should be a sense of community, camaraderie, and mutual support.

Launching your own home based business can not only lead you to a debt free life, but can also enable you to travel the path of true financial freedom.

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